Red Wolf Rediscovery: Ancestral Genes Found Alive In Texas
THE RED WOLF (CANIS RUFUS) HAS been rediscovered along the Texas Gulf Coast. Or at least its essence has proved to survive long-thought extinction.
A collaborative effort of Princeton, Trent University, University of Georgia and Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium researchers, among others, make this claim in a just published study preprint (not yet peer reviewed) at biorxiv.org.
“Rediscovering species once thought to be extinct or on the edge of extinction is rare,” researchers said. “Red wolves have been extinct along the Gulf Coast region since 1980, with their last populations found in coastal Louisiana and Texas. We report the rediscovery of red wolf ghost alleles in a canid population on Galveston Island, Texas.”
Biology Online Dictionary defines an allele as “one member of a pair (or any of the series) of genes occupying a specific spot on a chromosome that controls the same trait.”
An example would be eye color or head shape.
A “ghost allele” is essentially a genetic variant that has disappeared from a population through reduction or some other factor and then rediscovered elsewhere.
In this case it was found in two road-killed wild candid specimens from Galveston Island, Texas near the last known stronghold of the red wolf.
Among the first species listed under the Endangered Species Act, the red wolf was declared extinct after decades of relentless predator control and habitat destruction led to strained populations and hybridization with coyotes.
Some 14 of hundreds of canids caught by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) officials were considered to be true representatives of the species. They became the genesis of a successful nation-wide captive-breeding program and limited wild restoration effort in North Carolina today.
The study authors note surviving ancestral traits from the shared common ancestor of coyotes and red wolves could have drifted to a high frequency in the captive breeding red wolf population. A small portion of Gulf Coast coyotes; or wild coyotes in the Gulf Coast region are a reservoir of red wolf ghost alleles that have persisted into the 21st century.
“Through interbreeding with coyotes, endangered and extinct red wolf genetic variation has persisted and could represent a reservoir of previously lost red wolf ancestry. This unprecedented discovery opens new avenues for contemporary red wolf conservation and management. Ghost alleles possibly could be re-introduced into the current captive and experimental populations.”
Noted red wolf researcher and former USFWS biologist Dr. Ron Nowak said the study supports long-standing morphological evidence and visual observations. Animals at least partly red wolf have continued to exist along the Texas coast, in other parts of eastern Texas and in Louisiana from the 1970s to the present day.
Nowak said, “This new information should help to stimulate further relevant study that should ascertain the status of red wolf genetic material across larger areas, determine the mechanisms that have enabled survival of such material and develop appropriate management programs.”
Red wolf recovery has been controversial because of a variety of factors. This includes its protection under the Endangered Species Act which spooks some private landowners.
A few scientists have even questioned whether Canis rufus exists at all by hypothesizing it is a fertile gray wolf/coyote hybrid, not a separate species.
Other interests are concerned about recovery impact on deer populations and livestock. The corporate wildlife media have all but ignored the red wolf’s story.
It has never resonated with the public at large like its larger cousin the gray wolf’s comeback in the Yellowstone region, though the red wolf has long been much more at risk.
But the aforementioned essence of the red wolf has survived despite the obstacles. It may even be thriving, not only on Galveston Island but in a broader area.
Thousands of hunters, hikers, fishermen and landowners have reported seeing wolves in the Texas-Louisiana region since 1980. They have often been told they saw a coyote or a feral dog, not a wolf.
This study shows that if it looks like a wolf and howls like a wolf that it might not necessarily be fully wolf or fully coyote as we currently understand them.
What people are seeing in Texas and Louisiana however could be wild canids with genetics that could be the key to the survival of this misunderstood species.
—from TF&G STAFF REPORT